Flickr has enabled machine tagging quite some time ago and there has been a general push in the web towards semantic relations and data structures (e.g. see the archive posts on the Music China Heritage Project). However there seems to not have been a comprehensive “Quick to use” list of common machine tags that photographers and Flickrites can use. In fact while finding a number of high-ranked explanatory posts about the nature of machine tags, I have not found a brief overview of what I (as a typical photographer) can do to enhance my photos.
Updated on 2017-03-17 and 2017-11-06 with further machine tags as found useful as well as additional resources and projects in the web.
General tags applicable to most or all photos:
location:city=* (e.g. Stuttgart, Beijing, New York, etc.)
location:country=* (e.g. Germany, France, etc.)
location:state=* (e.g. Baden-Württemberg, Illinois, Hebei, etc.)
location:street=* (street name)
Every photo is being taken somewhere, and hence the content of the photo has been taken at the LOCATION as specified. Machine tags like these are nice add-ons, while Flickr itself takes the EXIF information to place the photo on the Flickr Map.
wikipedia:en=* (e.g. Paris, Banana, etc.)
This will create a link between the photo and the wikipedia page that is mentioned here. Be aware to NOT enter the whole wikipedia link, but only the title of the page that you are refering to. E.g. a photo representative of Paris should be linked to Paris. But if you have a photo that shows the Eifel Tower it might be better to link that to the Wikipedia article of the Eifel Tower and NOT Paris.
dc:identifier=* (e.g. URL to Wikipedia page or another page about the photo’s content main topic)
The DC Namespace explains the identifier as follows:
An unambiguous reference to the resource within a given context.
and I usually use this machine tag if there is a clear Wikipedia page with further information.
owl:sameas=* (e.g. “Sand Shark”)
I use the owl:sameas machine tag whenever a certain item or animal or person has more than one name and can be identified with another name as well. Animals often have more than one common name and with the owl:sameas tag I do mention each name individually.
Meta data about your camera (even though it is in the EXIF data, some processes do not read those data fields:
camera:maker=Nikon (or Canon, …)
camera:model=D90 (or D70, …)
In principle one could add all EXIF data such as aperture, shutter speed, ISO, focal length, etc. but as a start camera maker and model are sufficient.
For buildings / architecture photos:
architecture:building=* (e.g. Airport / cathedral / church / etc.)
architecture:completed=* (requires a year, e.g. 2015)
architecture:name=* (if a building has a certain name, such as “Schloß Hohenzollern)
architecture:architect=* (name of Architect)
architecture:completed=* (year in which the building as such was completed)
airport:iata=* (if the photo is taken inside an airport or depicts a part of an airport, then you can assign the IATA code here, e.g. FRA for Frankfurt International Airport).
For flower / plant / animal lovers:
taxonomy:kingdom=Animalia (for animals)
taxonomy:kingdom=Plantae (for plants)
taxonomy:binomial=”* *” (replace the stars with the genus and species)
For food / dishes / restaurant shots
food:cuisine=* (Cantonese, Chinese, etc.)
For things in general (e.g. archeological items from museums)
See the separate post about things.
Here are a few examples of machine tags for things:
thing:material=Marble (e.g. Stone, Cotton, Cloth, Steel)
thing:acquiredin=1857 (Year only)
thing:placeoforigin=Tarquinia (Area of origin)
thing:category=* (e.g. Statue, Figurine, Tool, Weapon, etc.)
thing:length=* (e.g. “35m” or “50cm”)
If it is known from where an archeological artifact has been excavated one can add a reference to the Pleiades gazetter.
pleiades:place=* (with the identifier as explained here)
For machines and factory plants
Similar to “things” above (which is more general), there are a number of possible machine tags for “machines” / “engines” / etc.
machine:model=* (Model number / type name / etc.)
For Music / Band Promo Shots / Events such as concerts/festivals:
event:type=* (e.g. concert, festival, fair, musical, opera, etc.)
event:venue=* (requires a specific name, such as CGGB or House of Blues Chicago)
music:artist=* (Name of the artist. Be aware of the differences between ARTIST, MUSICIAN and ROLE)
music:band=* (Name of the band, such as Slipknot, Metallica, etc.)
Musicbrainz, one of the large music directories online, has assigned a specific ID for artists, CDs, tracks and labels. On their explanatory page they offer a ay to identify this ID on their website.
foursquare:venue=* (see here for explanation)
Colors / Concepts:
For photos that are more minimalistic in their approach one has the option to include descriptive tags such as:
abstract:shapes=* (e.g. dot / circle / grid / lines)
color:contains=* (e.g. blue / green / yellow / etc.)
Summary and Updates:
- This should be a handy guide for Flickrites to tag one’s own photos with appropriate machine tags.
- If you have further tags that are useful, please add them as comments and I will include them in the list.
- Intitial version of this post as posted on 29.09.2015
- Machine tag browser for Flickr (be aware, this only shows what is used! Not what is correct or wrong)
- Explanatory blog post by tagaholic
- Tutorial by EOL on machine tagging
- Request for help by BHL on machine tags
- Used machine tags by the British Library Labs
- Introduction post on machine tags by horothesia for the Ancient Pleiades gazetter
- An architectural photo – by Azchael